Early Homo Sapiens were hunters and gatherers. They migrated in search of food, water and shelter. With the rise of agriculture, civilizations began to spring up.

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The four earliest civilizations were:

Mesopotamia located between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in south west Asia (part of the Fertile Crescent)
Egypt located on the lower (northern) part of the Nile river in Africa (part of the Fertile Crescent)
India located along the Indus river in India
China located along the Huang He (Yellow River) in China